Infection Control Today

OCT 2018

ICT delivers to infection preventionists & their colleagues in the operating room, sterile processing/central sterile, environmental services & materials management, timely & relevant news, trends & information impacting the profession & the industry

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Page 30 of 40

30 ICT October 2018 measures may be used from the earliest stages of an infuenza pandemic, including the initial months when the most effective countermeasure—a vaccine against the new pandemic virus—might not yet be broadly available. 3. Medical Countermeasures: Diagnostic Devices, Vaccines, Therapeutics, and Respiratory Devices: Aggressive translation of applied research in diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines may yield breakthrough MCMs to mitigate the next infuenza pandemic. Building on existing systems for product logistics, as well as advances in technology and regulatory science, can increase access to and use of critical countermeasures to inform response activities. 4.Healthcare System Preparedness and Response Activities: Delivery system reform efforts of the past decade have made today's healthcare system dramatically different from 2005. The next 10 years will bring even more changes to delivery settings, provider types, reimbursement models, the sharing of electronic health information, referral patterns, business relationships, and expanded individual choice. Despite these changes, healthcare systems must be prepared to respond to a pandemic, recognizing that potentially large numbers of people with symptoms of infuenza, as well as those concerned about the pandemic will present for care. Systems must implement surge strategies, so people receive care that is appropriate to their level of need, thereby conserving higher levels of care for those who need them. HHS must keep abreast of these changes and adapt tools and strategies accordingly. 5. Communications and Public Outreach: Communications planning is integral to early and effective messaging when a pandemic threatens, establishes itself, and expands. Accurate, consistent, timely, and actionable communication is enhanced using plain language and accessible formats. Testing messages and using appropriate channels and spokes- people will enhance our ability to deliver consistent and accurate information to multiple audiences. 6 . S c i e n t i f i c I n f r a s t r u c t u r e a n d Preparedness: A strong scientific infrastructure underpins everything HHS does to prepare for, and respond to, pandemic infuenza and other emerging infectious diseases. Strong scientific foundations are needed to develop new vaccines and therapeutics, and to determine how well other control efforts are working. Rigorous scientifc methods applied during a pandemic response yield information to improve both ongoing and future responses. 7. Domestic and International Response Policy, Incident Management, and Global Partnerships and Capacity Building: HHS will continue to coordinate both domestic and international pandemic preparedness and response activities. This will include having clearly defned mechanisms for rapid exchange of information, data, reagents and other resources needed domestically and globally, to prepare for and respond to an infuenza pandemic outbreak. As the Committee on Global Health and the Future of the United States observe, "Expanded global infuenza surveillance and laboratory capacity provide a clearer picture of evolving infuenza A viruses and the occurrence of novel viruses with pandemic potential. Forecasting, modeling and planning tools now facilitate dynamic estimates of pandemic virus spread, burden and impact. The National Pre-Pandemic Infuenza Vaccine Stockpile (NPIVS) has been established and satisfies requirements for vaccine and adjuvants to address infuenza viruses that are assessed to be the highest risk for human infection. Modifcations made to respiratory devices—both respirators and ventilators—should ensure better availability and improved technology in a future pandemic. Influenza vaccines can be produced more rapidly, and there is now suffcient domestic manufacturing capacity to make infuenza vaccine for every person in the United States. The goal of a 12-week timeframe for frst doses of vaccine is now within reach, compared with the typical six- to nine-month time for seasonal vaccine production, though challenges may persist in ensuring enough supply of pandemic vaccine is immediately available for the entire population. Influenza antiviral drugs are available in many formulations, including some specifcally for children. Federal stockpiles of antiviral drugs have increased to levels projected to meet treatment needs across multiple pandemic scenarios. Vaccines are now more broadly available in many settings, including pharmacies and retail clinics, to improve access to these countermeasures and reduce the surge on hospital and emergency care centers during a pandemic. Social media messaging channels now reach millions of Americans directly, and expanded partnerships with an array of nongovernmental organizations can deliver infuenza pandemic-related messages through those channels. Robust population-based surveillance and evaluation networks capture influenza-associated hospitalizations and monitor the effectiveness of infuenza antivirals and vaccines. Finally, State, Local, Tribal, and Territorial governments (SLTT) have developed, and many have exercised, pandemic infuenza preparedness plans, supporting global commitments made by the United States to pandemic preparedness planning." The committee adds, "Complementing progress on the domestic front, HHS has made signifcant improvements in strengthening global capacities to prevent, detect, and respond to an infuenza pandemic. A robust international surveillance network has been established by partnering with more than 50 countries to build capacity to detect novel infuenza viruses wherever they emerge. HHS participated in the development and adoption in 2011 of the WHO Pandemic Infuenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework for the Sharing of Infuenza Viruses and Access to Vaccines and Other Benefts. In addition, expanded international coordination on pandemic preparedness and response has been facilitated by HHS's continued support to the WHO Global Infuenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). This system not only allows for the capture of more viruses from more places for greater ability to detect an emerging pandemic threat, but also to produce timely seasonal and pandemic vaccine candidates. HHS also supported the development of infuenza vaccine manufacturing capacity in developing countries, creating a rapid response capability of over 500 million doses of pandemic infuenza vaccine in remote regions where previously there was none. Finally, HHS has integrated its domestic and international pandemic response policies and operations to minimize duplication of effort. HHS led the development of the North American Plan for Animal and Pandemic Infuenza (NAPAPI), which launched in 2012 as the primary framework for pandemic infuenza preparedness and response through collaboration among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. The Global Health Security Agenda, which offcially launched in 2014, and the continued efforts to implement the International Health Regulations (IHR), published in 2005 by the WHO, both highlight the ongoing need to establish or improve the global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to biological threats such as pandemic infuenza." Despite efforts to shore up preparedness, concern exists. Two years ago, the international, independent Commission on a Global Health Risk Framework for the Future issued a sobering report on the estimated global economic loss from potential pandemics that could average more than $60 billion per year. However, a report from the commission noted, nations devote a fraction of the resources to preparing, preventing, or responding infectious disease crises as they do to strengthening national

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